Pátek 29. května 2015

Warp Drive May Be More Feasible Than Thought, Scientists Say

space.com,   Pondělí˝ 17. září 2012

A ring-shaped warp drive device could transport a football-shape starship (center) to effective speeds faster than light.
A ring-shaped warp drive device could transport a football-shape starship (center) to effective speeds faster than light. The concept was first proposed by Mexican physicist Miguel Alcubierre.
CREDIT: Harold White 

HOUSTON — A warp drive to achieve faster-than-light travel — a concept popularized in television's Star Trek — may not be as unrealistic as once thought, scientists say.

warp drive would manipulate space-time itself to move a starship, taking advantage of a loophole in the laws of physics that prevent anything from moving faster than light. A concept for a real-life warp drive was suggested in 1994 by Mexican physicist Miguel Alcubierre; however, subsequent calculations found that such a device would require prohibitive amounts of energy.

Now physicists say that adjustments can be made to the proposed warp drive that would enable it to run on significantly less energy, potentially bringing the idea back from the realm of science fiction into science.


"There is hope," Harold "Sonny" White of NASA's Johnson Space Center said here Friday (Sept. 14) at the100 Year Starship Symposium, a meeting to discuss the challenges of interstellar spaceflight.



Warping space-time

An Alcubierre warp drive would involve a football-shape spacecraft attached to a large ring encircling it. This ring, potentially made of exotic matter, would cause space-time to warp around the starship, creating a region of contracted space in front of it and expanded space behind. [Star Trek's Warp Drive: Are We There Yet? | Video]

Meanwhile, the starship itself would stay inside a bubble of flat space-time that wasn't being warped at all.

"Everything within space is restricted by the speed of light," explained Richard Obousy, president of Icarus Interstellar, a non-profit group of scientists and engineers devoted to pursuing interstellar spaceflight. "But the really cool thing is space-time, the fabric of space, is not limited by the speed of light."

With this concept, the spacecraft would be able to achieve an effective speed of about 10 times the speed of light, all without breaking the cosmic speed limit.

The only problem is, previous studies estimated the warp drive would require a minimum amount of energy about equal to the mass-energy of the planet Jupiter.

But recently White calculated what would happen if the shape of the ring encircling the spacecraft was adjusted into more of a rounded donut, as opposed to a flat ring. He found in that case, the warp drive could be powered by a mass about the size of a spacecraft like the Voyager 1 probe NASA launched in 1977.

Furthermore, if the intensity of the space warps can be oscillated over time, the energy required is reduced even more, White found.

"The findings I presented today change it from impractical to plausible and worth further investigation," White told SPACE.com. "The additional energy reduction realized by oscillating the bubble intensity is an interesting conjecture that we will enjoy looking at in the lab."


Where should the first permanent space colony be built?
The Moon - It's our nearest neighbor after all.Mars - The Red Planet should be the next giant leap.Deep Space - Orbiting outposts are the only way to go.Asteroid Waystation - We should hitch a ride on a space rock.


Laboratory tests

White and his colleagues have begun experimenting with a mini version of the warp drive in their laboratory.

They set up what they call the White-Juday Warp Field Interferometer at the Johnson Space Center, essentially creating a laser interferometer that instigates micro versions of space-time warps.

"We're trying to see if we can generate a very tiny instance of this in a tabletop experiment, to try to perturb space-time by one part in 10 million," White said.

He called the project a "humble experiment" compared to what would be needed for a real warp drive, but said it represents a promising first step.

And other scientists stressed that even outlandish-sounding ideas, such as the warp drive, need to be considered if humanity is serious about traveling to other stars.

"If we're ever going to become a true spacefaring civilization, we're going to have to think outside the box a little bit, we're going to have to be a little bit audacious," Obousy said.

You can follow SPACE.com assistant managing editor Clara Moskowitz on Twitter@ClaraMoskowitz. Follow SPACE.com on Twitter @Spacedotcom. We're also on Facebook & Google+.

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The Milky Way turns galactic cannibal


You can also listen to the story in REAL AUDIO and WINDOWS MEDIA and MP3 formats.

LISA MILLAR: If you don't like the neighbours, eat them. That seems to be the approach of the Galaxy in which we live with astronomers believing the Milky Way is acting like a cannibal.

Star gazers at the Australian National University have been watching the Milky Way gobble up a smaller galaxy.

Felicity Ogilvie reports.

FELICITY OLGIVIE: It's a scenario that sounds like it's straight out of a science fiction novel.

Astronomers from the Australian National University have been looking at the skies above Canberra watching the galaxy we live in, the Milky Way, eating a small neighbouring galaxy.

Astronomer Stefan Keller says the smaller galaxy that's being torn apart is 10,000 times smaller than the Milky Way

STEFAN KELLER: The small galaxy, as it orbits around our own galaxy, it increasingly gets stripped. So the stars are lagging behind it and also in front of it and forming a narrow ribbon of stars that wrap around, around the Milky Way.

FELICITY OLGIVIE: The smaller galaxy is called the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy.

It's being torn apart because it can't fight the gravitational pull of a mysterious substance in the Milky Way called dark matter.

STEFAN KELLER: So there's this mysterious dark matter out there. Now, we can't see the dark matter by definition, but our study can see its gravitational pull on the small galaxy that's being consumed in this case.

FELICITY OLGIVIE: Another astronomer from the Australian National University who's been watching our galaxy devouring its neighbour is Simon Murphy.

Mr Murphy says there's a direct link between the gravitational power of the dark matter inside the Milky Way and the creation of planets, like the Earth.

SIMON MURPHY: The interaction of our galaxy, ripping apart another galaxy can stir up the gas and dust, and those stirring up of the gas and dust create stars, like the Sun and the stars around the Sun, and from the creation of stars comes the creation of planets, just like the Earth.

FELICITY OLGIVIE: This isn't the first time the Milky Way has eaten one of its neighbours. Astronomers think it may have drawn in up to 50 other galaxies.

Stefan Keller says the Milky Way needs to keep acting as a cannibal for life on Earth to continue. Mr Keller says the Milky Way couldn't exist if it didn't draw in other galaxies with its dark matter.

STEFAN KELLER: It turns out that it's a vital part of the evolution of the galaxy, that modern theories predict that there's been a large number of such merger events, and in fact, if they weren't such events, that the Milky Way would cease to be such a vibrant galaxy. The star formation would shut down after a few billion years.

FELICITY OLGIVIE: Simon Murphy says the Milky Way has only just started making a meal of the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy.

SIMON MURPHY: Obviously, with astronomy the further we look, the further we look into the sky the further we back in time we're looking, but this is happening right now. I mean, this is a process which has been occurring over millions of years, but we are actually seeing this galaxy being eaten by the Milky Way right now, as I'm talking to you, it's being slowly consumed.

FELICITY OLGIVIE: The astronomers say it could take millions of years for the Milky Way to finish eating its neighbour.

LISA MILLAR: Felicity Ogilvie reporting.


Sobota 10. leden 2009

Letters to Nature
Nature 308, 712 - 713 (19 April 1984); doi:10.1038/308712a0

Periodic mass extinctions and the Sun's oscillation about the galactic plane


Richard D. Schwartz & Philip B. James


Department of Physics, University of Missouri, St Louis, Missouri 63121, USA

Raup and Sepkoski1 have recently reported evidence fora 26-Myr periodicity in the occurrence of mass extinctions based on a study of marine fossils. The data baseline of 250 Myr suggests events of variable amplitude, with some of the strongest peaks associated with boundaries between major geological periods which have been defined by previous palaeontological studies. In a more limited quantitative study, Fischer and Arthur2 earlier cited evidence for a 32-Myr period of major extinction events. Hatfield and Camp3 were among the first to suggest that mass extinctions might be correlated with periodic galactic phenomena, noting intervals of 80−90 Myr between major mass extinctions with an exceptionally strong mass extinction every 225−275 Myr. Here we point out a possible correlation between the 26-Myr extinction period and the Sun's oscillation about the galactic plane.



1. Raup, D. M. & Sepkoski, J. J. Jr Proc. natn. Acad. Sci U.S.A 81, 801−805 (1984). | ChemPort |
2. Fischer, A. G. & Arthur, M. A. Soc. Econ. Paleont. Miner. Spec. Publ. 25, 19−50 (1977).
3. Hatfield, C. B. & Camp, M. J. Bull. geol. Soc. Am. 81, 911−914 (1970).
4. Oort, J. H. Bull. Astr. Inst. Neth. 15, 45 (1960).
5. Oort, J. H. in Stars and Stellar Systems Vol. 5 (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1965).
6. Mihalas, D. & Routly, P. M. Galactic Astronomy, 221 (Freeman, San Francisco, 1968).
7. Bahcall, J. N. Astrophys. J. 276, 169 (1984). | Article | ISI | ChemPort |
8. Trumpler, R. J. & Weaver, H. F. Statistical Astronomy (Dover, New York, 1962).
9. Allen, C. W. Astrophysical Quantities, 283 (Athlone, London, 1973).
10. Pollack, J. B., Toon, O. B., Ackerman, T. P. & McKay, C. P. Science 219, 287−289 (1983). | ISI |
11. Kauffmann, E.-G. in Proc. Conf. on Large Body Impacts and Terrestrial Evolution, 23 (Lunar and Planetary Institute, Snowbird, Utah, 1981).
12. Brown, R. L. & Gould, R. J. Phys. Rev. D1, 2252−2256 (1970). | Article | ISI |
13. Nousek, J. A., Fried, P. M., Sanders, W. T. & Krausharr, W. L. Astrophys. J. 258, 83−95 (1982). | Article | ISI | ChemPort |
14. Watson, M. G., Willingale, R., Grindlay, J. E. & Hertz, P. Astrophys. J. 250, 142−154 (1981). | Article | ISI | ChemPort |
15. Damon, P. E., Lerman, J. C. & Long, A. A. Rev. Earth planet. Sci. 6, 457−494 (1978). | Article | ISI | ChemPort |

Eddy, J. A. Science 192, 1189−1202 (1976). | ISI |




Středa 7. leden 2009


 In 2003, the Hubble Space Telescope took the image of a millennium, an image that shows exactly how insignificantly small we are. Anyone who understands what this image represents is forever changed by it. If you are the kind of person who has an over-exaggerated sense of his own importance, just take a few minutes of your time and watch this video. I can guarantee that you will be humbled by what you see in it. Enjoy the show.

Pátek 15. prosince 2006


This is one of the images that Sir Arthur C. Clarke says makes him " 95% convinced " that it represents " large forms of life " on Mars:


Find at:


He wrote to me via e-mail on March 9, 2001 and stated:

" I'm 95% convinced that there's no other conclusion...."

I fully agree that this is close to incontrovertible evidence of large present or past ³tree-like² organisms on Mars. I do not believe that these will be explained as ³geological features² or illusions. Only closer-in imaging will decide the matter There is much more, as time will tell.

On February 25, in an interview with Buzz Aldrin video
taped by Space.com, Arthur C. Clarke said:

" I'm fairly convinced that we have discovered life on Mars. There are some incredible photographs from [the Jet Propulsion Laboratory], which to me are pretty convincing proof of the existence of large forms of life on Mars! Have a look at them. I don't see any other interpretation."



Pátek 15. prosince 2006


THUNDERBOLTS OF THE GODS - 1:03:51 - 3.2.2007
Silver Wolf Productions Inc./Thunderbolts Project - www.thunderboltsdvd.com  

Challenge yourself, your peers, your teachers.  Participate in a revolution in science and human evolution.  Watch this film and in an hour know more than most NASA scientists about the fundamental force that forms and sustains the universe (summary below). Visit: www.thunderboltsdvd.com - to purchase the DVD andor Thunderbolts Of The Gods 'monograph' (book), - to view higher resolution sequences from the film (with stereo sound), - to subscribe to a free newsletter that will keep you up to date on the latest discoveries in space and a revolutionary new interpretation of them. The Thunderbolts Project calls into question not only countless modern scientific assumptions, but also the billions of dollars of big-science government and corporate funding that continues to preserve and entrench questionable theories - elevating them to the status of doctrine - while systematically excluding legitimate alternatives that threaten the status-quo.  Alternatives that may represent the future of science. The Thunderbolts Project offers remarkably simple explanations for 'black holes', 'dark matter', the electric sun, comets that are NOT made of ice, planetary scarring and many other 'mysterious' phenomena. It proposes that much of the currently observable phenomena of deep space can be intelligently explained by already known principles of electricity.  High school students get it immediately.  A doctorate in higher math is not required. This extraordinary new theory also redefines ancient history, linking rock art images carved in basalt 5,000 years ago with identical images found only in Hubble photographs of deep space or in photographs of recently declassified high-energy plasma discharge experiments generated in a billion dollar lab. The Thunderbolts Project invites you to participate in this revolution, to test and even challenge its validity, or, if finding it rational and intriguing enough, to contribute to its expansion and further evolution. Thank you, The Thunderbolts Project

Pátek 9. leden 2009

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